Glossary of wireless industry acronyms and terms

While we may be well-versed in acronyms like LOL and FYI, the wireless telecoms industry is filled with countless abbreviations that can leave newcomers scratching their heads. With so many acronyms to navigate, it's easy to feel overwhelmed and confused.

Despite having some prior knowledge about 5G, Wi-Fi, and LAN, I didn't want to appear ignorant in front of my new colleagues. So, to avoid any embarrassment, I took the initiative to compile a comprehensive list of the most prevalent acronyms in the wireless industry along with their meanings.

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Browse the list below:

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1G: 1G revolutionized communication, enabling wireless calls from anywhere without landlines.

2D: 2D graphics and animation refer to flat, two-dimensional representations used in film, gaming, advertising, and web design. With advancements in technology, 2D graphics have become more sophisticated, offering a wide range of artistic possibilities and captivating audiences with stunning visuals and immersive storytelling. Its timeless appeal ensures its continued relevance in the world of graphics and animation.

2G: 2G, the second iteration of mobile network technology, brought significant advancements from its predecessor, 1G. It introduced digital voice communication and allowed for the transmission of data, including text messages. 2G networks, primarily based on the GSM standard, became the most widely used mobile communication standard worldwide.

3D: 3D computer graphics have revolutionized visualization and interaction with digital content, creating realistic virtual worlds and objects. In architecture, they have transformed the design process by allowing architects to create virtual models, explore them from all angles, and effectively communicate their vision to clients and stakeholders, improving efficiency and issue resolution.

3G: 3G brought significant improvements in data transmission speeds and network capacity compared to 2G. It enabled faster internet browsing and data-intensive applications on mobile devices. Although it became outdated, 3G played a crucial role in paving the way for newer and faster technologies like 4G LTE and 5G NR.

4G LTE: 4G LTE is short for “fourth generation long-term evolution.” It’s two terms combined. First, “4G” represents the fourth generation of mobile technology, and “long-term evolution,” or “LTE,” is industry jargon used to describe the particular type of 4G that delivers the fastest mobile internet experience.

5G NR: 5G NR is a new radio access technology developed by 3GPP for the mobile network. It was designed to be the global standard for the air interface of 5G networks.

6G: 6G, the next generation of wireless technology, will revolutionize connectivity and communication. With faster speeds, lower latency, and more reliable connections, 6G will support data-intensive applications like virtual reality, autonomous vehicles, and the Internet of Things. Despite challenges in development and deployment, the immense benefits of 6G have the power to transform industries and improve quality of life worldwide. 6G will play a crucial role in shaping how we connect and interact with the world.

802.11: is a groundbreaking family of evolving standards that have revolutionized wireless connectivity. Developed and maintained by IEEE, it has continuously evolved to meet the growing demands of our interconnected world. With its diverse range of specifications, this wireless networking standard has become the cornerstone of modern wireless technology. 


AP: An Access Point is a wireless network device that serves as a gateway for devices to connect to a local area network. Access points are crucial for expanding the wireless coverage of an existing network and accommodating a larger number of users.

ACPR: Adjacent-Channel Power Ratio is a crucial measurement in wireless communication systems that determines the amount of power transmitted in adjacent frequency channels. It is a key performance indicator used to assess the quality and efficiency of wireless networks.

AMPS: Advanced Mobile Phone System is a widely used cellular technology that revolutionized the way we communicate. AMPS, which emerged during the technological revolution of the 1980s, pioneered the era of mobile phone systems and set the stage for the cutting-edge wireless networks that have become an integral part of our lives today.

ASP: Application Service Provider is a company that grants individuals and businesses access to applications and related services via the Internet. While the term has been mostly replaced by software as a service (SaaS) provider, some companies still use the two labels interchangeably in certain parts of the world.

ATM: Asynchronous Transfer Mode is a high-speed networking technology developed in the 1980s that efficiently transfers various types of data, such as voice, video, and multimedia, by breaking them into small, fixed-size cells and reassembling them at their destination.

Attenuation: this is a crucial concept in telecommunications and refers to the reduction in signal strength as it travels through a medium, such as cables or air. This phenomenon occurs due to various factors, including distance, interference, and the characteristics of the medium itself.

AutoCAD: AutoCAD is a 3D design software widely used in engineering and architecture. It revolutionized design processes by allowing professionals to create intricate structures, realistic renderings, and simulate scenarios with its advanced features and intuitive interface.


BBU: The baseband unit (BBU) is the baseband processing unit of telecom systems. A typical wireless base station consists of the baseband processing unit (BBU) and the RF processing unit (remote radio unit - RRU). The BBU is placed in the equipment room and connected with the RRUs via optical fibre.

Beamforming: Also known as spatial filtering, beamforming is a technology that shapes/directs the wireless signal towards a wireless client/device to deliver a stronger signal.

BER: Bit Error Rate is a crucial metric in telecommunications. It measures the error rate in a digital transmission system, indicating transmission quality and reliability. BER is expressed as the ratio of bit errors to transmitted bits.

Building modelling (3D): Building modelling in standard CAD software is a crucial aspect of the design and construction industry. With advanced features and an intuitive interface, professionals can create highly detailed and accurate 3D models of buildings and structures.

BOM:bill of materials or product structure (sometimes bill of material, BOM or associated list) is a list of the raw materials, sub-assemblies, intermediate assemblies, sub-components, parts, and the quantities needed to manufacture an end product.

BPSK: Binary phase shift keying is a digital modulation technique used in telecommunications to transmit data over a radio frequency carrier wave. It is a form of phase-shift keying (PSK) where the phase of the carrier wave is varied to represent binary data.

BSC: Base Station Controller (BSC) The BSC is a crucial network entity that controls a number of Base Transceiver Stations (BTS).

BSS: Base Station System / Subsystem  (BSS) is crucial in mobile communication networks, managing radio communication between mobile phones and the network. It includes key elements like the Base Transceiver Station (BTS), Base Station Controller (BSC), and Mobile Switching Center (MSC).

BTS: The Base Transceiver Station (BTS) is an essential component that enables seamless radio communication between mobile devices and the network infrastructure. Acting as a central coordinator, the BTS efficiently manages the transmission and reception of signals, ensuring a reliable and uninterrupted connectivity experience for mobile phone users.


C/(N+I): measures the quality of a wireless signal in the presence of noise and interference. A high value indicates a strong signal, while a low value signifies a degraded signal with potential disruptions.

C/I: Carrier-to-Interference ratio (C/I) is a fundamental metric in wireless communication systems that measures the ratio of the desired carrier signal strength to the interfering signal strength. It plays a crucial role in determining the quality and reliability of wireless connections.

CAD: Computer Aided Design enables professionals to create detailed 3D models, visualize ideas, make precise measurements, and simulate scenarios for optimal design solutions.

Cable routing: Cable routing entails determining the optimal pathway for network cables to be installed within a building, tunnel, or venue.

Capacity planning: Capacity planning is the art of accurately predicting the required bandwidth for a specific wireless network, taking into account factors such as user demand, data usage patterns, and network capacity.

Carrier Grade Wi-Fi: A Wi-Fi network implemented by a network operator with a strong focus on providing superior quality and seamless accessibility to its subscribers.

CDMA: CDMA, also known as Code Division Multiple Access, is a modulation technique in telecommunications that efficiently transmits data over a carrier wave. With its ability to handle multiple signals simultaneously, CDMA optimises the use of available bandwidth to deliver reliable and high-quality wireless connections.

Component database: A comprehensive components database empowers users to access essential information. Ranplan's device database is a collection of network antennas and components which are an invaluable resource for professionals engaged in the design of indoor wireless networks.

CP: Circularly polarized signals are electromagnetic waves with a unique property - their electric field rotates in a circular pattern as they propagate through space, allowing them to overcome challenges in wireless communication and find applications in various industries.

CPICH: Common Pilot Channel is an essential component of wireless communication systems, specifically in 3G and 4G networks. The CPICH serves as a reference signal that provides important information to mobile devices, allowing them to synchronize with the base station and accurately measure signal strength.

CW: Continuous Wave Signals are constant and uninterrupted, with no modulation or variation in amplitude or frequency. They are commonly used in radar systems and amateur radio transmissions.

CAPEX: Capital Expenditure is the costs that a company incurs to purchase or upgrade its assets such as network components.

CBRS: The Citizens Broadband Radio Service is a wide broadcast band, spanning 150 MHz, within the 3.5 GHz band in the United States. On January 27, 2020, the FCC granted full authorization for wireless service providers to commercialize the CBRS band, removing previous restrictions that aimed to prevent interference with military spectrum usage. This ground-breaking development means that wireless carriers utilizing CBRS may potentially deploy 5G mobile networks without the need to acquire additional spectrum licenses.

COAX: Coaxial Cable is designed to transmit high-frequency signals with minimal losses, making it essential in telecommunications.

C-RAN: Centralized/Cloud Radio Access Network is a centralized and cloud computing-based architecture that supports 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G and future wireless communication standards.


DAS: A Distributed Antenna System is an effective solution for addressing areas of weak coverage within a large building. By strategically installing a network of smaller antennas throughout the building, these antennas can act as repeaters and improve signal strength in isolated areas.

dB: Decibel is a unit of measurement widely used in the field of telecommunications to quantify the intensity or power of a signal. It provides a logarithmic scale that allows for easier comparison and representation of signal strength or power levels.

dBd: Decibel referenced to dipole antenna is a unit of measurement commonly used in telecommunications to quantify the gain or loss of an antenna compared to a half-wave dipole antenna. A dipole antenna is a simple and widely used antenna design that consists of two conductive elements, typically straight rods or wires, with a feed point at the centre.

dBi: Decibel referenced to isotropic antenna (dBi) is a unit of measurement commonly used in telecommunications to quantify the gain or loss of an antenna compared to an isotropic antenna. An isotropic antenna is a theoretical antenna that radiates equally in all directions, making it an ideal reference point for measuring antenna performance.

dBm: Decibel power relative to 1 milliwatt (dBm) is a unit of measurement commonly used in the field of telecommunications to quantify the power level of a signal. It provides a reference point for comparing the strength of different signals in a logarithmic scale. The dBm measurement allows us to understand the power level of a signal in relation to the power output of 1 milliwatt.

dBW: decibel power relative to 1 watt, is a unit of measurement commonly used in the field of telecommunications to quantify the power level of a signal. It provides a logarithmic scale that allows for easier comparison and representation of signal strength or power levels.

Dominance over macro: The signal difference in dB between the indoor and outdoor networks, known as Dominance over macro, is critical in determining wireless system performance and reliability. It quantifies indoor network strength, providing insights into coverage quality and potential interference.

Dominant Path Model: The Dominant Path Model is a mathematical framework used in wireless communication systems to analyse and predict the behaviour of radio waves as they propagate through different environments. It takes into account factors such as terrain, buildings, and other obstacles that can affect the signal strength and quality in a wireless network.


eMBB: Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB) is one of the three services defined by 3GPP for 5G NR deployment. eMBB is designed to provide higher data rates, better bandwidth, higher throughput, increased reliability and lower latency as well as improved multimedia functionality for the end user.

EIRP: Effective Isotropic Radiated Power measures the overall power density radiated from an antenna in a specific direction. It takes into account both the antenna's gain and the power input to determine the total power radiated by the antenna system.


Femtocell: A femtocell is a small, low-power cellular base station that connects to the service provider's network via broadband. It extends service coverage indoors or at the cell edge, supporting multiple mobile phones in residential and enterprise settings. It is applicable to all standards, including WCDMA, GSM, CDMA2000, TD-SCDMA, WiMAX, and LTE solutions.

FNBW: First-Null BeamWidth refers to the angular width of the radiation pattern of an antenna or a signal, where the power or intensity falls below a certain threshold. It is a crucial parameter in the field of telecommunications as it helps determine the coverage area and the directionality of the signal.

FSL: Free Space Loss refers to the loss of signal strength as it propagates through space without any obstacles or interference. As radio waves travel through the atmosphere, they experience attenuation due to the spreading of the wavefront and the absorption of energy by the surrounding environment.


GHz: GigaHertz is a unit of measurement used to quantify the frequency of electromagnetic waves in the field of telecommunications. It represents one billion cycles per second, making it an essential parameter for understanding wireless communication systems.

GPRS: Global Packet Radio Service allows for the seamless transfer of packets over wireless networks. GPRS operates on the same principles as traditional circuit-switched networks but offers the added advantage of packet-switched technology.

GPS: Global Positioning System has transformed the way we navigate and determine our precise location on Earth. Developed by the United States Department of Defense, GPS utilizes a network of satellites orbiting the planet to provide accurate positioning and timing information to users worldwide.

GSM: Global System for Mobile is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe the protocols for second-generation (2G) digital cellular networks used by mobile devices.


HetNet: Heterogeneous Networks refers to modern mobile networks that combine different cell types and access technologies. These networks include older systems like GSM and UMTS, as well as newer technologies like LTE, 5G and Wi-Fi.

Macro cells provide coverage, while Pico and microcells enhance capacity in busy areas. Femtocells and Wi-Fi are used in offices and homes. These small cells are a key feature of the HetNet approach, offering flexibility in positioning. Wi-Fi plays a significant role in HetNets, facilitating data offload and roaming between outdoor and in-building environments.

Heat maps: Heat maps visually represent data using colours, providing a comprehensive understanding of network KPIs associated with a specific wireless signal.

HPBW: Half-Power BeamWidth is the angular width of an antenna or signal's radiation pattern where the power or intensity falls to half of its maximum value. It helps determine the signal coverage area and directionality.


IaaS: Infrastructure as a Service are online services that provide high-level APIs used to dereference various low-level details of underlying network infrastructure like physical computing resources, location, data partitioning, scaling, security, backup etc.

ICNIRP: International Committee on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection is an organization that provides guidelines for protecting individuals from non-ionizing radiation, such as radio waves, microwaves, and visible light.

IEEE: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers is a global organization with over 400,000 members in 160 countries dedicated to advancing technology and innovation, including telecommunications. They play a vital role in shaping the future of electrical and electronics engineering.

IOT: Internet of Things refers to devices that gather and exchange data using a wireless internet connection. These devices vary in size, from vehicles to clothing sensors. In homes, examples of IoT devices include smart power meters and bathroom scales that sync with a training diary to track and analyse personal health and fitness data.

In-building / indoor network: In-building networks provide seamless connectivity and high-quality signals in indoor environments like offices, malls, stadiums, and hospitals.

Indoor RF planning: Indoor network planning ensures seamless connectivity by analysing the layout and requirements of indoor spaces to optimally place antennas and access points.


KPI: Key Performance Indicators are essential metrics that evaluate wireless network performance, efficiency, reliability, and overall service quality. Analysing KPIs helps carriers identify areas for improvement and optimise network performance.


Leaky feeder: A leaky feeder is a communications system used in underground mining and other tunnel environments. Manufacturers and cabling professionals use the term "radiating cable" as this implies that the cable emits and receives radio waves, functioning as an extended antenna.

LTE: Long Term Evolution is a term used for a type of 4G (4th generation) that delivers the fastest mobile Internet experience. You'll usually see it called 4G LTE or 4G LTE-A (advanced).

LoRa: Long Range is a spread spectrum modulation technique derived from chirp spread spectrum (CSS) technology. Semtech's LoRa is a long-range, low-power wireless platform that has become the de facto wireless platform of the Internet of Things (IoT).

LPWAN: Low-Power Wide-Area Network is a term used to describe a variety of technologies that connect controllers and sensors to the Internet. Sigfox was the first service provider to use LPWAN to connect devices to the Internet.

LTE-M: Long Term Evolution Machine Type Communication, which includes eMTC (enhanced Machine Type Communication), is a type of low power wide area network (LPWAN) radio technology standard developed by 3GPP to enable a wide range of cellular devices and services specifically, for machine-to-machine and Internet of Things applications.

LAN: A Local Area Network is a computer network that connects devices in a limited area, enabling resource sharing among multiple devices.

LHCP: Left-Hand Circularly Polarized refers to circular polarization in wireless communication systems, where the electric field rotates in a circular motion, as opposed to linear polarization where it oscillates in a straight line.

LOS: Line of Sight refers to the unobstructed path between a transmitting antenna and a receiving antenna. It is essential for ensuring optimal signal strength and quality in wireless communication systems.


Macrocells: These are large cells in mobile phone networks that provide radio coverage over a wide area. They are mounted on masts or rooftops to ensure a clear view and have power outputs of tens of watts. Increasing the transceiver efficiency can enhance macrocell performance.

MAPL: Maximum Acceptable Path Loss refers to the maximum amount of signal loss that a wireless communication system can tolerate while still maintaining acceptable performance. It is a crucial parameter that helps determine the range and coverage of the network. By understanding the MAPL, network operators can design and optimize their systems to ensure reliable and efficient communication.

MCP: Measurement Campaign Plan plays a crucial role in the successful implementation and optimization of multi-technology networks. It is a detailed blueprint that outlines the steps and procedures for conducting measurement campaigns to assess the performance, coverage, and quality of the network.

MHz: MegaHertz is a unit of measurement used to quantify the frequency of electromagnetic waves in the radio spectrum.

MIMO: Multiple Input, Multiple Output is a technique that uses multiple antennas to boost the capacity of a radio link by increasing the power. By utilizing multiple transmission and receiving antennas, MIMO takes advantage of the multiple paths that signals can take, resulting in improved performance and faster data rates.

MMF: Multi-mode optical fiber is a short-distance communication technology with high data rates of up to 100 Gbit/s. Its large core diameter enables the propagation of multiple light modes but limits the maximum transmission length due to modal dispersion. 

Multi-Operator: Where multiple carriers are sharing the same wireless network. Multi-technology networks combine different wireless technologies, such as LTE, Wi-Fi,  LoRa and NB-IoT, to create a robust and efficient communication ecosystem. This approach allows network operators to leverage the unique capabilities of each technology and provide a diverse range of services to their users.

MVNO: Mobile Virtual Network Operator is a  service provider that provides mobile voice, text messaging, data and associated services but does not have a radio access network of its own. An MVNO usually purchases the network capacity from a mobile network operator (MNO).

MWM: Multi-Wall-Model is a cutting-edge approach that enhances the accuracy and efficiency of indoor network planning. The MWM technique improves the placement of antennas and access points in indoor spaces. It ensures better signal quality and uninterrupted connectivity. This is achieved by considering multiple walls.


NB-IoT: NarrowBand-Internet of Things is a standards-based low power wide area (LPWA) technology developed to enable a wide range of new IoT devices and services.

Network Capacity: refers to the maximum volume of data that can be transferred across a network between two points . The capacity requirements will depend on the number of users and the types of applications being used on the network at a given time.

Network Coverage: refers to the geographical area where the wireless network is able to establish communication within its intended service area.

Network Design: is a precise process to create a telecom network or service that meets the needs of subscribers and operators. It involves a careful analysis of user requirements, network equipment, system configuration and environmental impacts to ensure optimal performance and functionality.

NLOS: Non-Line Of Sight means no direct visibility between transmitting and receiving antennas in telecommunications. NLOS communication occurs when obstacles such as buildings, hills, or plants obstruct the signal. This is different from LOS communication, which requires an unobstructed path.


Outdoor Interference: Interference caused by surrounding outdoor wireless networks on the indoor wireless network.

OPEX: Operating Expenses, are the ongoing costs associated with operating and maintaining a system. These expenses are necessary to keep the operations running smoothly and efficiently.

OLOS: which stands for Obstructed Line of Sight refers to when objects are blocking the signal between the antennas, causing a weaker or worse signal.

Optimization: Refers to the tools and techniques used to monitor and improve network performance. It involves analysing the network infrastructure, identifying capacity overload and other performance issues, and implementing solutions to eliminate or mitigate them.

ORAN: An Open Radio Access Network is a non-proprietary version of the Radio Access Network (RAN) system that allows interoperation between cellular network equipment provided by different vendors.


P25: Project 25 is a suite of standards for interoperable digital two-way radio products. P25 was developed by safety experts in North America. It is now used worldwide for safety, security, public service, and commercial purposes.

PAN: Personal Area Networks are intimate networks that connect devices within a limited range. They enable seamless communication and data sharing among personal devices such as smartphones, tablets, and smartwatches. PANs provide a convenient and efficient way for individuals to stay connected and access their digital world on the go.

Path loss, or path attenuation: The reduction of signal power as it propagates further.  There are many factors that can influence pathloss, such as terrain, urban or rural settings, vegetation, distance between devices, and antenna height and positioning. Different environments can cause free-space loss, refraction, diffraction, reflection, coupling loss, and absorption.

PCI: Physical Cell Identifiers are used in networks to identify cells in the physical layer. They help separate different transmitters. Since there are many cells in the network, PCIs are reused and multiple cells can have the same PCI.

PEL: Plane Earth Loss is when a wireless signal weakens because of the earth's surface properties. This includes factors such as terrain contours, vegetation, and the distance between the transmitter and receiver. Understanding PEL is crucial in optimizing network performance and ensuring seamless connectivity in wireless communication systems.

PIM: Passive intermodulation happens when unwanted signals are made by the interaction of frequencies in a non-linear device. These additional signals disrupt and distort the original signal as it travels between two wireless systems, causing interference.

Floor plan annotations: Documenting observations and details about a location and linking them to specific areas on the floor plan. Annotations can include written notes, photographs, videos, or audio recordings.

POI: Point of Interface is the point of the network at which carriers interface with one another.

Prediction maps: also known as heat maps, provide a visually appealing and informative representation of data. By using vibrant colours, these maps effectively illustrate the different network Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) associated with a specific wireless signal. They provide detailed information about signal strength, coverage, and quality, helping network operators analyse and improve their wireless networks.

Propagation (in wireless terms): the movement of radio waves from a transmitter to a receiver. Factors such as terrain, buildings, plants, and obstacles can degrade, refract, diffract or reflect the signal propagation. The goal is to analyse and predict the behaviour of these signals.

Public Safety Network: A dedicated network that helps organizations share important information and communicate effectively during emergencies.


QoS: the Quality of Service measures how well the network performs and how reliable it is for users. Networks need to provide users with good services, like fast data, low delay, and reliability, according to set standards.


RAN: Radio Access Network is a system that connects individual devices to the core network through radio connections. It serves as the bridge connecting mobile devices to the broader network infrastructure, enabling efficient and reliable wireless communication. 

RAT: Radio Access Technology defines the method of radio communication on the network.  Most devices will support several RATs such as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, GSM, UMTS, LTE or 5G NR.

Reporting: Reports provide a detailed overview of the wireless network project and consolidate valuable insights and information.

RF: Radio Frequency refers to electromagnetic waves used for communication signals like radio, TV, mobile phones, and radar. It covers frequencies ranging from below 3 KiloHertz to about 300 GigaHertz.

RF Engineer: A skilled wireless network expert who understand how to plan and deploy wireless networks based on specific use cases.

RHCP: Right-Hand Circular Polarisation occurs when the electric field rotates in a circular motion. In contrast, linear polarisation involves the electric field moving in a straight line.

ROI: Return on Investment is a measure used to evaluate the profitability of an investment. It assesses the financial return relative to the initial cost of the investment.

RIS: Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces is a programmable surface structure that can be used to control the reflection of electromagnetic (EM) waves by changing the electric and magnetic properties of the surface.

RRH or RRU: is a remote radio transceiver that connects to an operator radio control panel via electrical or wireless interface. The RRH handles all RF functions, including transmitting, receiving, filtering, and amplifying. The transmit component typically includes a DAC, mixer, power amplifier, and filters.

RSRP: Reference Signal Receive Power is a measurement of the average power level received from a single reference signal.

RX: Receive is a term commonly used in wireless communication systems to refer to the process of receiving signals or data from a transmitting device. In the context of network performance and optimization, the ability to accurately receive signals is crucial for ensuring a reliable and efficient wireless network.


SAR: Specific Absorption Rates refers to the rate at which energy is absorbed by the human body when exposed to radio frequency radiation. Understanding SAR levels is crucial in evaluating the safety of wireless devices and ensuring they comply with regulatory standards.

SMF: Single Mode Fibre is an advanced type of optical fiber specifically engineered to transmit only a single mode of light over longer distances with minimal signal loss and dispersion. SMF is the superior choice for long-haul telecommunications applications.

SINR: Signal-to-interference plus noise ratio is used to measure the quality of wireless connections, taking into account factors such as path loss, background noise, and interfering signals.

SISO: Single Input, Single Output refers to a wireless communications system in which one antenna is used at the source (transmitter) and one antenna is used at the destination (receiver).

Site survey: Exploration and collection of data in a designated location where a planned wireless network is intended to be implemented.

SC: Small Cells are miniature powerhouses of radio access, operating within both licensed and unlicensed spectrum, offering a range spanning from a mere 10 meters to an impressive 1 or 2 kilometres. These compact yet mighty nodes play a crucial role in expanding wireless connectivity with their ability to cover significant distances while maintaining optimal performance.

Survey data: During a site survey, valuable data is collected, including RF measurements and a variety of annotations, such as detailed text notes, captivating photos, insightful videos, and even audio recordings.


TETRA: short for Terrestrial Trunked Radio, is an advanced digital mobile radio system that has been developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to provide seamless and unified interfaces for digital radio communications professionals. With its cutting-edge technology and robust features, TETRA provides professionals in various industries reliable and efficient communication in even the most challenging environments.

TDD: Time-division duplexing enables simultaneous transmission and reception on the same frequency channel, maximizing efficiency and capacity. With TDD, users can enjoy seamless and uninterrupted communication, without interference or delays, paving the way for faster and more reliable wireless networks.

TDM: Time-division multiplexing is a technique in wireless communication systems that divides time slots into multiple channels, enabling simultaneous transmission of different signals. It ensures efficient and reliable data transmission, enhancing overall network performance and enabling seamless communication between devices.

TDMA: Time-division multiple access is a wireless communication technology that allows multiple users to share the same frequency channel by dividing it into different time slots. Each user is allocated a specific time slot to transmit and receive data, maximizing network efficiency and capacity. This approach enables seamless communication and simultaneous operation of multiple devices on a single channel.

Throughput: refers to the rate at which data is successfully transferred over a communication channel. It is a crucial measure of the efficiency and performance of a network, as it determines how quickly data can be transmitted and received. A high throughput indicates that data is being transferred at a fast rate, resulting in smooth and uninterrupted communication.

TX: Transmit-out is the process of sending data or signals from a device or system in wireless communication. It involves converting data into electromagnetic waves or radio frequencies to establish a connection and enable effective communication between devices. Transmit-out is essential for various wireless technologies, allowing for the exchange of information between devices..


UHF: Ultra High Frequency refers to a range of electromagnetic wave frequencies that lie between 300 MegaHertz (MHz) and 3 GigaHertz (GHz). This frequency range is commonly used in various wireless communication systems, including television broadcasting, mobile communication networks, and public safety networks.

UMTS: The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System is a third-generation mobile cellular system for networks based on the GSM standard.

URLLC: Ultra-Reliable, Low Latency Communications is a service category in 5G to accommodate the applications with stringent latency and reliability requirements.

UI: User Interface is the point of human-computer interaction and communication in a device. This can include display screens, keyboards, a mouse and the appearance of a desktop. It is also the way through which a user interacts with an application or a website.

UWB: Ultra Wide Band is a wireless communication technology that operates at very high frequencies and wide bandwidths. It is designed to provide extremely fast data transfer rates and low power consumption, making it ideal for a wide range of applications.


VoLTE: Voice over Long-Term Evolution is a technology that uses virtually dedicated data packets to enable mobile voice calls over the LTE (Long Term Evolution) network as opposed to dedicated circuits which are traditionally used for voice calls.

VHF: Very High Frequency has wavelengths ranging from 30 to 300 MHz that are highly reliable and perform well in wireless communications. They have superior long-distance coverage and obstacle penetration compared to higher frequency bands, making them ideal for various applications such as broadcasting, maritime communication, aviation, public safety, and amateur radio.

VSWR: Voltage Standing Wave Ratio is a crucial metric used in radio frequency engineering to assess the effectiveness of transmission lines and antennas. It measures the mismatch between the impedance of the transmission line and the load or source, directly impacting wireless communication system efficiency and dependability.


Walk test: A walk test is a technique used to measure the extent of coverage, capacity, and Quality of Service (QoS) provided by a mobile radio network while walking through an environment.

WAN: A Wide Area Network is a powerful and expansive computer network that extends across geographical boundaries, allowing seamless connectivity between multiple offices or locations. It serves as the backbone for interconnecting different sites and facilitates efficient communication and data transfer.

WCDMA: Wideband Code Division Multiple Access is a third-generation mobile cellular system based on GSM. It offers higher data rates and improved capacity compared to previous generations. It uses TDD and FDD for simultaneous transmission and reception of data.

WLAN:Wireless Local-Area Network is a group of co-located computers or other devices that form a network based on radio transmissions rather than wired connections. A Wi-Fi network is a type of WLAN; anyone connected to Wi-Fi while reading this webpage is using a WLAN.

Wi-Fi: A Wi-Fi network is a type of wireless local area network that utilizes radio waves to establish connections between computers and various devices, enabling seamless internet access.


XPD: Cross-Polar Discrimination is a measure in wireless communication systems that determines the ability of an antenna to separate the desired signal from unwanted cross-polarized signals. It quantifies the level of isolation between the horizontally and vertically polarized components of a transmitted or received signal.

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